The NZ Army utilises US Army warfighting as described in ADP 3-0 Operations, July 2019. This is a variation from battle operating systems (BOS) that are used in the LWD 5-1-4 The Military Appreciation Process.
A warfighting function (WFF) is a group of tasks and systems united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. WFF are the physical means that tactical commanders use to execute operations and accomplish missions assigned by a superior commander.
The purpose of WFF is to provide an intellectual organisation for common critical capabilities available to commanders and staffs at all echelons and levels of warfare. Commanders integrate and synchronize these capabilities with other WFF to accomplish objectives and missions.
Command and Control (C2)
The command and control WFF is the related tasks and a system that enable commanders to synchronize and converge all elements of combat power. The primary purpose of the command and control warfighting function is to assist commanders in integrating then other elements of combat power (leadership, information, M2, intelligence, fires, sustainment, and protection) to achieve objectives and accomplish missions. The command and control WFF consists of the command and control tasks and the command and control system. (See below)
The command and control WFF tasks focus on integrating the activities of the other elements of combat power to accomplish missions. Commanders, assisted by their staffs, integrate numerous processes and activities within their headquarters and across the force through the command and control functions. These tasks are;
- Command forces
- Control operations.
- Drive the operations process
- Establish command and control systems.
The purpose of the Int WFF is to know what is happening. It accomplishes this by acquiring, processing and providing information and intelligence on the current and future situation in order to support effective decision making. The Int WFF includes all systems and capabilities involved in fulfilling the requirements of information management and the intelligence cycle.
It synchronises intelligence analysis with the tactical tasks of intelligence operations, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) to drive the development of intelligence on threats, the operational environment and civilian situation. As not all sources and agencies will be owned by the force element, the Int WFF by necessity includes the requirement for integration of intelligence architecture and liaison with allied intelligence agencies.
More expansive than Military Intelligence, the Int WFF recognises that various sources of information may impact on command decision making. This may include information from groups that are not the focus of military intelligence, such as allied forces, government agencies, and non-governmental organisations. The identification of the need for this information and subsequently coordinating its collection is therefore a part of the Int WFF.
Movement & Manoeuvre (M2)
The purpose of the M2 WFF is to position land forces in relative advantage to the threat. It does this through the three sub-functions of movement, manoeuvre and mobility. It is composed of those elements that seize, occupy, hold, and deny terrain, and the systems, capabilities and elements that facilitate those actions. Manoeuvre elements may then exploit the advantage gained through that terrain action to destroy the threat in close combat.
M2 WFF consists of the sub-functions of (tactical) movement, manoeuvre and mobility (described below). Administrative movement is related to the Sustaining WFF.
- Movement is primarily concerned with positioning forces in an advantageous place and time from which to have an effect to achieve the mission. It is the activity involved in the change of location of equipment, personnel or stocks as part of a military operation1 to or within a potentially hostile environment.
- Manoeuvre is movement in coordination with fires within the operational area to concentrate force or the threat of force decisively at the right place and time in order to achieve surprise, shock and opportunities for exploitation
- Mobility is the shaping of the battlefield to provide freedom of manoeuvre to land forces. It is comparative to threat elements therefore includes actions to reduce the enemy’s freedom of manoeuvre
By its nature, the M2 WFF exists in the physical domains and inherently in close proximity to the threat and civilian elements. It is this fundamental characteristic that defines land force operations.
The purpose of the Fires WFF is to engage threat elements with lethal and less-lethal joint fires and effects, usually in coordination with manoeuvring ground forces (M2 WFF). It accomplishes this through the collective and coordinated use of kinetic and non-kinetic joint fires and effects in support of a manoeuvre plan, employing these means to delay, disrupt, or destroy enemy forces (adapted from RNZA Duties in Action). The Fires WFF is composed of the architecture, systems and capabilities required to deliver and coordinate Fires from land or joint elements across multiple domains.
The Fires WFF includes the indirect fire capabilities organic to the force, such as mortars and artillery. Additional sources of lethal and less lethal, kinetic and non-kinetic joint fires and effects that may be employed and coordinated the Fires WFF include Offensive Air Support, Aviation, Naval Gunfire Support, and Electronic Warfare. All systems used to coordinate the delivery of these effects are included in the Fires WFF, and are therefore inherently linked to the Targeting and ISTAR IPA discussed later.
Influence Activity (IA)
The purpose of the IA WFF is to affect the will and understanding of groups to assist in the achievement of the mission. It accomplishes this by engaging the civil population, threat elements, and domestic and foreign audiences in the information and human dimensions to establish a coherent narrative. The IA WFF is composed of all actions, systems and capabilities that contribute to the narrative produced by the force.
As all actions (words and deeds) undertaken by the force contribute to the coherent narrative, the IA WFF is used to coordinate the actions of the force to ensure a consistent message is portrayed. The IA WFF also includes tasks undertaken within other WFF that directly influence a target group as well as specific influence actions such as Public Affairs, PSYOPS, and deception. ‘Engagement’ with the civilian population is considered under this WFF, it is not a CIMIC function.
IA also includes the sub-function Civil Military Cooperation (CIMIC). The CIMIC aspect of the WFF is a command led function in order to ensure coordination with the mission objectives, and that the military efforts of the force are coordinated as part of the comprehensive approach. The purpose of CIMIC is to coordinate with and support the various non-military elements of the operating environment. It accomplishes this by engaging with non-military elements, conducting support and development activities to and with them, and coordinating actions between them and the force. The CIMIC aspect of the IA WFF is composed of all systems, capabilities and elements tasked to support or otherwise engage with the non-military communities, including dedicated CIMIC units.
The scope of engagement may include Other Government Agencies (OGA), Non-Government Organisation (NGO), Host Nation (HN) Government, and key elements within the civil community in general. As part of capacity building, engagement with Host Nation Security Forces (HNSF) may form part of the CIMIC aspect of the IA WFF area of responsibility. Coordination activities involving the civilian community may be considered within the CIMIC aspect of the IA WFF, but general engagement or engagement with the community to exert influence would more properly be considered an IA WFF aspect.
The purpose of the Protection WFF is to preserve combat power, the ability of the force to operate in the threat environment. It accomplishes this through adopting measures and conducting actions to reduce the risk posed by adversary, environmental and other threats and hazards. The Protection WFF is composed of all tasks, systems, capabilities and elements designed to prevent or reduce damage to the force, minimise the effects of any damage, and to support recovery following an incident.
Protection includes the physical aspects of force personnel (combatants and non-combatants), equipment, and infrastructure. It also includes the non-physical aspects of the force such as information and reputation. Protection may also encompass the surrounding population and environment.
The purpose of the Sustainment WFF is to maintain the force’s freedom of action. It accomplishes this by supporting the force to ensure it has the capacity to act and continue to act until successful achievement of the mission. Sustainment influences the tempo, duration and intensity of all operations and often determines what can actually be achieved.
The Sustainment WFF is composed of all systems, elements and capabilities relating to the provision, movement, sustenance and well-being of personnel, materiel and installations. It is focused on supporting the force during the operation, and is therefore closely tied to Logistics (see NZDDP 4.0). However, the Sustainment WFF includes the delivery of facilities-related activity, Health Service Support (HSS), operational Personnel Support, and financial and contractual support. Administrative movement (generally movement via strategic transport) is included in the Sustainment WFF.